While these relative orientations are always maintained, the particular orientation of the electric and magnetic field vector pair (z and y in Fig. 1) is a free variable - it is known as the light wave's polarization.
Just as a given light wave has a particular polarization, so do people. It is a term often used to describe how a person or a group of people leans in terms of political views. Conservative tendencies are deemed 'right', while progressive ones are deemed 'left'.
Stars, like the Sun, emit light with random polarizations, with no particular orientation favoured in the 360 degree spectrum. Politically speaking, it seems that most Western societies are not like this. In America in particular, the voting public, each voter representing one light wave, is polarized. Republicans to the far right, and democrats to the far left. It seems unnatural that a group should be so divided, but this is the way the political system has evolved. Politicians purposely divide - polarize - voters.
Speaking again of light, there exist optical tools that filter out all but one polarization. The polaroid, discovered in 1938 by the American entrepreneur E. H. Land, does just this. Land mixed tiny crystals into a clear plastic solution, cooled it, and then stretched it into thin sheets. The stretched molecules allow for only one orientation of electric field to pass through. So a polaroid may be thought of as a filter for light.
Politicians are kind of like lasers - they are stubborn, emitting light with just one polarization. Sometimes the media act as Polaroids, allowing easy passage for certain viewpoints and filtering out much of the rest. While purposeful polarization of EM waves is used in a number of practical applications, the polarization of the voting public serves nobody but the politicians.